Tesla's Real Game Changer is Maintenance, or Rather Lack thereof

Trains and hyperloops for sure, but electric vehicles—autonomous or not—are the future of personal transportation. Yet the true disruptive dimension of electric cars is their reliability. This also partly helps explain why dealers don't like them. Tesla sold about 50,000 cars in 2015, which is a very small portion of the 17.5M cars sold in the US that year. So why are the dealers doing everything they can to try to stop them—often using what appears to be ludicrous arguments of 'unfair competition' as well as state legislation that awkwardly seems to fight innovation and new business models?

Reliability is an overlooked issue in this regard. Not only is Tesla trying to upgrade the car buying process from its current 1950s model, sidestepping the dealers to gain full control of the end to end car manufacturing and sales process. With the reliability of electric cars, Tesla is also revolutionizing car ownership. Traditionally, dealers have made a small cut on every new car they sold or leased, but in truth, they make most of their money (80/20) from handing out products designed to need service every 6-12 months and, after a couple of years, break down at regular intervals.

Electric cars hence threaten to shut down this vital income stream for the dealers. Even through Tesla is selling comparatively few cars, dealers are worried that other car manufacturers will eventually figure out where the market is heading and follow suit. This means that BMW, Mercedes, Audi, Ford, etc. will release more and more mainstream, low-maintenance electric vehicles. Even if these manufacturers continue to work through existing dealer networks, the dealers don't see where they would make their money.   

Edward Tufte and Interaction Design

Went to a full day course today here in NYC given by Edward Tufte; a legend in the field of information visualization. I've always enjoyed reading Tufte's work. His historical odysseys, writing style, thoughtfulness, and carefully crafted books should be required reading for everyone from business schools MBA-ers to CS to the arts to social sciences to journalists to design educations. His books are that good and that important. For me, the central theme in Tufte's work has been the integration of text and visuals, content and form, which has been an important source of inspiration for my own work.

I'm not sure what I had in mind for a one day course and I did enjoy most of it, but I left feeling a little short changed. Perhaps the course is mostly meant as a basic introduction to his work and not a deepening of it? His presentation style is also slow, quite likely knowingly so—deeply rooted in the 'old american male professor' genre—but still slow. I like that he's not using Powerpoint slides but instead builds up a story (slowly) around a couple of key images that he zooms in and out of (although to be honest some of his pictures looked a lot like slides!) I also really liked that he just jumped right into it, on the hour, without even the shortest "hello and welcome." Refreshing!

Tufte's work is hence utterly relevant to so many different areas and has impact and implications for even more fields. Yet, one of the areas I feel his work is relevant to but he hasn't quite grasped is my field—interaction design. He's hovering over a host of relevant topics here, for sure, but doesn't quite get the details right, which unfortunately for him is exactly what he keeps calling out other people on, so... 

First of all, his thinking in this space seems a bit old. For instance, Tufte kept referring to some Dell laptop where the scrollbars apparently covered 11% of the screen real estate. That's a relevant anecdote if the year is 2003, but not really in 2016. In a world of smartphone apps, retina displays, tablets, hamburger menus, world wild west, notifications, creative online typography, etc. etc., it would seem that there are so many other more recent examples of the same idea (i.e. badly designed interface elements that hide rather than promote content) that this rather archaic anecdote more serves to confuse than enlighten. There were a few others like this as well, including web designers confusing the short term memory magic number 7 +/-2 theory. I'm sure this has happened, but probably not in the last decade and certainly not a common occurrence anymore, if it ever was.

There are so many examples of Tufte's work that are still so relevant for today's web and app designers, so why not talk about these instead? He mentioned one in passing: that many sites today are conceived and designed to be responsive, i.e. aiming at providing an 'optimal reading experience' regardless of what device/resolution you use—in effect separating content from layout and function. I think it's fair to say that Tufte's collected works can be seen as a critique of this very relevant and timely design idea. So why not spend time on massacring this? I would.

Tufte also mentioned that he was one of maybe 10 people in the world who thinks theoretically about these issues. Again, he's been at it for a while and this was maybe, even probably, true at some point, but I also think it's a bit negligent towards what has happened in the field in the last 20-30 years. Folks from all kinds of (academic) disciplines are doing it now: such as Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), interaction design, philosophy of technology, and design research, as well as a host of non-academic thinkers utilizing blogs, internet-based magazines, professional conferences and workshops, etc.

Third, Tufte's only substantial idea (at least in the way it was framed at this talk) about interaction design echoed the Heideggerian notion of "not letting the interface get in the front of the content". This idea was popularized in HCI and interaction design by Winograd & Flores back in 1987 and even earlier than that in the philosophical field called philosophy of technology. This idea is one that I've drawn on heavily in my own work, among several other researchers and practitioners in interaction design.

Yet, the problem here seems to be the distinction between form and content. In all his work, Tufte shows that these go best together if they are considered hand in hand. 

Let's look at this in a bit more detail. One of Tufte's recurring rhetorical refrains is that you now have better tools at your disposal in your smartphone than those that you use at work and that we should all rise up and demand at least equally good tools for 'work'. That's fair, but what Tufte misses here is that this also means that there is a substantial overlap between "work" and "leisure"—or whatever we want to call it, i.e. when we're not actually 'working'. I think one of the fundamental shifts in interaction design over the last 15 years or so is that the computer now just isn't something we think about as a machine for work. It's so much more than that. We use our PCs, laptops, and smartphones to mindlessly scroll through Facebook, play games, pass time, buy stock, watch movies, find plumbers, stalk coworkers on LinkedIn, read a text, write novels, keep swiping left and only occasionally right, anonymously rant on online fora just because you can, check out new music, do some work stuff (mostly emails), create graphs for our kid's soccer team, pass time before I can get out of here, plan the holiday in Cape Cod, and so on and on and on. All using the same magical machine.

With this in mind, I think Tufte's explicit notion that the primary role of interaction design is to make the interface disappear in favor of content is still a relevant perspective in many ways. However, it also implicitly suggests a rather old-school, work oriented perspective lurking underneath—which is that the user's only goal of using a computer or a smartphone is to get to the 'content' that their interfaces are hiding. It often is, but not always. Such a view is not enough to understand what interaction design is today. In what I have called the 'third wave of HCI', we see for instance web sites and apps where the interface is knowingly designed to be unclear and fuzzy and it is the user's task (or fun, to be more precise) to figure it out. Here, the interface and the content blend into one—they become the same thing. The interaction itself becomes valuable and meaningful, not just the so-called 'content' that it is supposed to hide or show. Computer games have always had an element of this. What makes Flappy Birds irresistible is the interaction, not the content.

At the end of the day, literally, I left Tufte's talk not bedazzled but yet hopeful. Tufte's thinking is still relevant for interaction design, it might just require someone with more detailed knowledge about the area to be able to interpret, see, and further develop its significance. One potential path is the current interest in digital assistants such as Siri, Alexa, Cortana, and 'Ok Google'. Applying Tufte's information visualization principles to these would probably reveal quite a few design obstacles to overcome in the next couple of years.

That said, I ended up taking a lot of notes and did get to doodle a bit too. This one, for instance, I call "A Bear with Many Faces" (yes, of course I name my doodles!)

Towards Integrated Headphones? On Apple and the Rumored Removal of the Headphone Jack

Quite a few people, not least so tech bloggers, seem to almost violently oppose one side of design I’ve always thought Apple is doing well, at least on the hardware side—that good design is as much about taking things away as it is to add stuff. Apple's done this with the floppy drive, CD-drive, VGA port, and lately—with the rather incredible Macbook—with all but one port. Others have quietly followed a couple of years later.

Some of these bloggers are now upset that the next iPhone might not have a traditional headphone jack: the 3.5 mm stereo connector. This connector, which of course is analogue, was invented in the 19th century to be used in telephone switchboards. The same design is still in use for connecting a wide variety of audio peripherals, from headphones to electric guitars.

That the connector is old is not the reason it might have seen its prime, however. In many ways, the 3.5mm is the perfect analogue audio connector. It rotates 360 degrees, you can charge at the same time as you listen to music, headphones do not have to be charged, etc. Yes. 

If the rumors are true, I am sure Apple has converging reasons for why they want to remove it. First, phones seek to get thinner and thinner yet with huge batteries inside and at some point size and real estate does become an issue. Here, Apple's engineers probably struggle with the length of the connector, not necessarily its diameter. Second, I would be surprised if there is not an element of selling-new-headphones here too. Beats, after all, is an Apple company, and yes, yes, you do wonder what company would be ready with a line of USB-C headphones in case Apple decides to go with the new connector. Apple's ecosystem is important, but the firm makes a lot of money selling stuff still. If they decide to go with the Lightning port, which I dearly hope they won't, they will also force manufacturers to pay up for using it. Additionally, on a paranoid note, the move could potentially be DRM oriented, but surely that's not the case, right? RIGHT? 

Third—and worth spending a bit more time on—we have ‘other technical reasons’:

Here, a USB-C port (let's hope they don't go with Lightning connector, although knowing Apple that's probably not unlikely) would in the long run actually offer increased compatibility between devices. As the traditional headphone jack is analogue and really just envisaged to transport an audio signal, various ‘hacks’ have been made to its design along the way to allow it to do more. The iPhone, for instance, uses a 4-conductor (so called TRRS) phone connector for its headset to allow for a microphone and control buttons for pause/play and volume. Other vendors have made other design choices. This means that Bose’s quite excellent QuietComfort 20 noise cancelling earpieces come in two different versions, one for Apple devices and one for Android. As an active user of both an iPhone 6 and a Nexus 6p this is surprisingly annoying. I’m begging for the industry to widely adopt USB-C as the standard for all kinds of peripherals, regardless of type. I think Apple should have some credit for paving the way (and taking the bullet, too) and I’m surprised other vendors aren’t following suit—yes, looking at you Samsung and Google.

Another, and for me personally, the primary reason I’m not so sure dumping the headphone jack is such a bad idea is also related to it being analogue. This one, however, has to do with sound quality, something I care about.

As the traditional headphone jack serves the headphones you put into it with an analogue signal, this signal has to be converted from digital to analogue and then amplified before it can leave the phone through the headphone jack. In other words, in the signal chain from wherever in the cloud your music lives to your ear, there has to be a digital to analogue converter (a DAC), an amplifier, and some form of speaker system (such as your headphones). Today, everything except the latter typically lives inside of your smartphone or your computer. Almost without exception, these amplifiers are underpowered, of poor quality, or both, which in turn make them unable to drive anything else than the crappy kinds of earpieces that came with your phone. Hence, even if you have a good pair of headphones, they do not really sound as good as they can on your mobile device.

There are at least two things to consider here. First, there has been trend towards wireless Bluetooth headphones. As often tends to happen, this technology was released before it was ready for prime time. Early implementations of Bluetooth headphones were buggy and the sound quality was terrible. While the technology has come a long way in the last couple of years, Bluetooth still has its limitations and quirks, mainly to do with the fact it uses the same wireless frequency, the 2.4Ghz band, as literally everything else: wireless mice and keyboards, WiFi, microwaves, you name it. Still, Bluetooth audio is becoming a viable alternative to the headphone jack.

Second, in an increasingly broader circle of people that are actually interested in audio quality—even outside of the rather narrow and highly specialized group often referred to as audiophiles—there has been a trend towards getting dedicated external audio units. Musicians are getting devices such as Universal Audio’s Apollo to be able to record, mix, and master music professionally. Connoisseurs of music are buying external DACs and amplifiers to improve the sound quality, such as Meridian’s rather great Explorer2. What these devices have in common is that they are external and that they connect to the computer device through USB, Firewire, or Thunderbolt.

Thus, by removing the digital to analogue conversion and the amplification from the device, Apple actually opens up for a new breed of “integrated headphones” where the DAC, the amplifier, and the headphone itself can be matched to perfection by the maker.

Make no mistake, I’m convinced that this will result in an explosion of rather terrible integrated headphones over the coming years, but I’m also convinced that serious companies can use this to their advantage and come up with well-balanced, well thought out, and of course, well-sounding combos. For the benefit of mankind. Well.

 

Unapologetic Interfaces

A while back, I wrote a short piece about something I called 'apologetic interfaces', suggesting a new class of interfaces that pay attention to what their users are up to, what they're there to achieve, and seek ways of minimizing the hassle of dealing with unnecessary application maintenance, inclusive of updates, new feature tutorials, notifications, invitations to rate the app, etc.—you know all that stuff that drives us mad when all we're trying to do is to get stuff done.

I firmly believe that apologetic interfaces are the future. We need interfaces that realize that most of them are just that, interfaces. They are conceptually, factually, and by definition, in between us and our work. We need interfaces that realize that when I open up Microsoft Word I do that because I have a sudden need to write something down. Unless there's an earthquake, tsunami, major conflict, or a sudden outbreak of ebola in my area—I don't want to be be bothered with whatever-it-is. Just open the &$%&@# document so I can start to type. Please.

The state of the art, unfortunately, is still quite the opposite—the unapologetic interfaces rule, across platforms and devices. Notifications, update requests, badge icons, embedded tutorials, rating invitations, 'did you know?', and so on indefinitely, are still doing all they can do divert their users' attention from whatever they were trying to get done and paying absolutely no attention what so ever to what the user is doing at the time.

Here's a very telling example. Yes, it's the Wild West. Yes, it needs to change.

Can you hear the difference?

I like Quora, the site where people pose real questions and then interact over actually interesting and often meaningful issues by sharing knowledge and opinions. No selfies, no photos of someone's cute grandkid with ice cream all around his mouth, and no amazing sunsets. Unheard of in the social networking sphere -- what an odd idea!

Here, I stumbled on this question: Can you hear a difference in quality between Spotify's 320 Kbps stream and Tidal's lossless audio stream?

My answer: Yes, absolutely.

This ties in nicely with a long-standing interest (or theory if you like) of mine: how digitalization of analogue things first tends to make the experience worse and inferior to its analogue counterpart. When the digital technology matures and is capable of delivering a similar or even better experience, then people have grown used to an inferior experience and don't see the point. 

In my view, this is exactly what's happening to Tidal's HiFi streaming right now. 

I would argue that if you can't hear the difference between say Spotify and Tidal's FLAC streaming you might have either or all of these three problems -- all of which have to do with the dynamics of the music:

1. Your equipment isn't good enough. If you're listening to your music through your iphone headphones everything tends to sound the same. The argument here, though, is that you don't need to have a $200k amplifier to tell the difference. Just get a pair of decent headphones by AKG, Sennheiser, or others. You don't need to go crazy -- a pair such as the Sennheiser Momentum 2 will work really well just plugging straight into your smartphone or computer (but even a little better with a cheap USB Dac). I suggest you take your smartphone and walk into a hifi shop an try your favorite music with some good headphones. I personally prefer AKG, Sennheiser, Grado, and Audeze, but there are many other good brands too.

2. The music you're listening to isn't recorded and/or produced to sound any better on hifi equipment. A lot of today's music is mixed to sound good on cheap headphones. A lot of today's music is also heavily compressed -- and I mean HEAVILY compressed. Genre is important too. The difference is much easier to spot in acoustic and low-key music than say techno. But even there the quality difference is possible to hear, just listen for fragile sounds such as open hi-hats or ride cymbals. Also, pay attention to details. I bet you can hear things you haven't heard before, such as small imperfections: the guitarist's hands moving over the strings to change chords, the singer's breathing, the drummer fiddling with the kit. There's a rich warmth to high-def music that's hard to explain -- but you'll hear and feel it immediately. 

Try listening to some songs that have good dynamic range: then it's quite easy to tell the difference, such as (these are Tidal links):
- Everybody Hurts, REM
- A Rainy Night in Soho, the Pogues
- Revelation Big Sur, Red House Painters
- See the Sky About to Rain (from Live at the Massey Hall), Neil Young
- Bullet in the Head, Rage Against the Machine


3. You're not used to high-quality music. This last point is a bit controversial, but I firmly believe that many people have never really listened to music produced by a high-quality hifi stereo, so they've got used to the sound of inferior mp3s and think that's how their favorite songs should sound. This is a shame!

The difference between listening to say Red House Painter's Songs for a Blue Guitar album on hifi stereo equipment using a great source versus listening to it through my iphone earbuds is quite honestly like night and day. It's still a great record, but in the same way that watching a good hockey game on a black and white TV is still a good game -- it's just such an endlessly richer experience to watch it live.

Apologetic Interfaces

The MacOS X menu for Bose's SoundTouch music system comes across as almost a little heartbreaking. It is as if it doesn't really believe in itself. Why else would 'Quit' be the first menu option? 

The first steps toward a new breed of "Apologetic Interfaces?"

Picture the creative meeting where this was decided. A few people around a conference table, half-empty coffee cups, a few post-it notes. "Let's see, what would The User want to do..." Silence. After a while, from the other side of the table, "Well... it would be... ehhh.. some users might... like to... ehm...shut down the, ehm, quit." "Ah, excellent! Let's write that down on the whiteboard!" "Anything else?"

This example aside, maybe it's not such a bad thing that applications step it down a little. While it's natural that an application wants to tell the user as soon as possible that, "Hey! Guess what, there's a new version of me out!", the problem is that with all the apps you have on your computer, it's just too much distractive shouting going on all the time from a lot of different places.

If I open up Word, I do so because I either want to write something down or read a document. Unless there's a minor crisis (let's say an earthquake) I DO NOT want Office Update to take focus away from the document that's forming in my head and inform me of "critical update #1.6.28343".

Similarly, if I open up say VLC, especially while giving a talk, I do so because I want to show my audience a lovely little video clip, not give them the breaking news that version 2.1.5 has improved the reliability of MKV and MAD file playback.

An old-school, Unapologetic Interface, but not without finesse

Mindlessly checking for an update the first thing you do when the user opens up the application is just bad, thoughtless design. You open an application because you want to do something with it, right now. There are so many more ways in which an update could be done in a nicer, more humane way that doesn't get in the way of the user's intent.

A simple solution would be to gather the information and download the update in the background. Then just hold off the notification until the user either decides to quit the application or becomes idle. Or update it automatically in the background. Or, let the OS handle it if that's an option. Apple knew about this problem as well, that's why they implemented the App Store and the Notification Center. That's all pretty great, but then again some of the most notorious apps aren't using that. Looking at you, Microsoft and Adobe. 

One of the finesse-less, usual suspects

If you look closely at the picture above, you'll see that VLC comes with a solution to this which isn't without finesse. Clicking that small (and offset) check-box, you can chose to automatically download and install updates in the future (given that you then click 'Install Update'). That's actually a pretty elegant design idea. 

Yet, there are two problems with this approach. First, I doubt a lot of people actually notice this potential. With this kind of interface, you get drawn to the "install update" button. Or, if you're in fact giving a presentation, you just click whatever button you can as fast as possible to get this annoying window out of sight. A more general concern with automatic updates, second, is that new isn't always better. If an app goes from say version 1.4.23 to 2.0, it may actually be wise to stick with the old version for a while and let them figure out the bugs before you update. Or you simply don't like the new look and feel. Or, which is getting increasingly common, version 2.0 really means the same functionality as version 1 but now with ads all over the place. 

So when it comes to software updates, I'm leaning more and more towards update-as-you-quit as the more humane approach, with minor, bug fix updates automatically installed in the background. 

In light of this, maybe SoundTouch's approach could be seen as the humble beginnings of an entirely new breed of interfaces, "apologetic interfaces", characterized by low self esteem and by being aware of their propensity to annoy.

"I'm so sorry for wasting your precious time and valuable screen real estate, Dear User, but before we part I would like to let you know that there is a new me for you. No pressure, just letting you know." 

Come to think of it, too much of that could become annoying as well.

The Fishtank: An Agitational Artifact

For our client ABB Corporate Research, we created a series of alternative designs to contrast the traditional user interface and interaction design of control systems for industrial application. The Fishtank was one of the incarnations of this series. It is an interactive design exploration in the area of industrial control systems.

Conventional industrial control systems, such as ABB’s system 800xA, present the user with a panel view where machines, faceplates, sensor data, labels, etc. are organized and visualized side by side in a two-dimensional space. This design idea echoes the way in which control panels have always been designed; evolving from a non-digital era when each button, lever, label, and output device was physical and thus needed physical real-estate and a fixed location on the panel. Over the years, “the panel” as a way of framing and thinking about control room systems has formed a very strong conceptual idea for control room systems.

This is true to this day, when—at least in theory—a digitalized, computer-based control system could have any kind of user interface. Obviously, the 2D panel has not stayed on because it is a bad idea—on the contrary, there are many benefits to separating different things in two dimensions and giving them a fixed physical location in space. 

However, in this project, we wanted to explore the design space of "the possible" in this area by creating a series of radically different designs. The purpose was not necessarily that the results would aim to replace the traditional control room panel, but rather that they in different ways could come to complement, be different from, and to some extent challenge the panel as a design idea.

A typical problem in modern control rooms is the ever-expanding number of sensors that call for the operators’ attention. Relying on the quasi-physical panel as a design idea, it means that a 2D view of a factory keeps getting larger and larger. To deal with this, you either add more screens to the control room or you let the operators only see a small part of the entire factory on their personal screens.

As an alternative to this, we asked: would it be possible to design an interface in which the panel for the entire factory could fit on only one screen? 

The result from this experiment is the Fishtank prototype. It is an example of what we call an “agitational artifact”, i.e. an interactive artifact ideated, designed, and prototyped to be used using real data in real time—but where the main purpose of the artifact is to allow people to be exposed to a hands-on alternative to what they are used to; something with enough of a critical edge to shake them up a little bit, to make them think.

The Fishtank presents the user with a three-dimensional space. In this 3D space, the entire factory resides in the form of all its faceplates. A faceplate can for instance be a representation of a water tank in the form of the name and ID of the tank and its corresponding sensor data, such as water level, temperature of the water, etc.

The three dimensions in the Fishtank, i.e. X, Y, and Z space, are conceptual dimensions that can be controlled by the user. Hence, the user can decide what each of the three dimensions should represent.

For instance, the Y dimension can be made to represent the number of alarms a particular faceplate has; the X axis can be made to represent time since the last alarm; and the Z axis how far from the ideal or threshold each faceplate’s main value is.

But these conceptual dimensions can be changed easily and in real time to allow the user to interact with and play around with the factory to just monitor or to make certain parts stand out.

Unlike a traditional 2D design, the Fishtank uses movement, interaction, and conceptual dimensions—not fixed location in physical space—as the main sense making vehicle for the user. As such, it is radically different from the way in which control room software such as ABB’s 800xA has evolved and provides the user with a very different, engaging, and fun user experience. 

While an interactive artifact should be experienced hands-on, the video below gives you an idea what using this system is like.

Jaws!

I'm slowly working on this part of the site. Stay tuned... If this was 1998 or so, I would put a black-and-yellow animated gif here, showing a guy with a shovel. But that's not going to happen. Here's a video with a shark from our office instead. 

Work Music: the Case of the Ramada Inn

Ramada Inn by Neil Young is an epic song to carry out work to -- or, as I'm sure my English teacher once would have had me have it, "an epic song to which to carry out work". Even the folks at the Rolling Stone magazine seem to like it, it's at no. 5 on their list of the best songs of 2012.  

In my experience, different kinds of music tends to be good to do different things to, and then obviously some people like classical music, some like jazz, some techno, while others, for no obvious reason, are into Bieber, Cyrus, Timberlake and the likes of them. Yet, regardless of what you like, this song is just a little different for our specific purpose. Let me explain why:

First, it's an old-school, great, great Neil Young song with his signature high-gain open chords and 5-notes-or-so solos. What more do you need?

Second, it's almost 17 minutes long. This is key. This means you can shut down your email, put it on, dive right into almost any task, and often finish it before the song ends. It's like a mini-sprint for yourself. I'm trying to squeeze in at least one such session a day. Among other thing, this actually got me redesigning my homepage, finally. Let's just say that last time I managed that we didn't have iPhones.

 "Every morning comes the sun."